(A BRIEF OVERVIEW)
A water borehole is a man-made hole dug into the ground to get to ground water. The most commonly sought liquid is water: About 97 percent of the world’s fresh water is found in underground aquifers. Water borehole may be dug simply to monitor water quality or to heat or cool, as well as to provide drinking water when treated. Drilling a borehole may be done in one of several ways, as described in this paper, and there are things to consider before drilling a borehole.
Planning a Borehole
Consider the costs and benefits of drilling a borehole against piping or shipping of water: Drilling a borehole involves a higher initial cost than connecting to a public water supply, as borehole has risks of not finding enough water or water of sufficient quality and ongoing costs to pump the water and maintain the borehole. However, some water districts may make residents wait years before they can be connected to a public supply, thus making borehole drilling a viable option where there is enough groundwater at a reasonable depth.
Know the specific location of the property where the borehole is to be drilled: You’ll need to know the section, township, range and quarters to access land and borehole records through your state’s geological survey.
Find out what previous boreholes have been drilled on the property: Geological survey records or state borehole drilling reports will record the depths of previous boreholes in the area and whether or not they found water. These records can help you determine the depth of the water table, as borehole as the location of any confined aquifers.
Most aquifers are at the depth of the water table; these are called unconfined aquifers, as all the material above them is porous. Confined aquifers are covered by nonporous layers, which, although they push the static water level above the top of the aquifer, are more difficult to drill into3.
Consult geologic and topographic maps. Although less useful than borehole-drilling records, geologic maps (fig 1.0) can show the general location of aquifers, as borehole as the rock formations in an area. Topographic maps show the surface features and their elevations and can…