This study was on oxidative stress status of rat fed with Pentraclethra macrophylla, otherwise known as African oil bean seed oil in English or Ugba in Igbo. Sixteen male rats were distributed into four groups. 1 (control), then group 2, 3, and 4 as test groups. They were fed with their formulated meal (5%, 10%, 20% inclussions) for 28 days. Group 1 was the control and were fed with the normal feed, while group 2, 3 and 4 which were the test groups were fed with test feed formula.. The parameters determined were MDA concentrations and catalase activity. Serum MDA significantly increased (p<0.05) while the catalase activity significantly decreased (p<0.05). This finding may be clinically significant to individuals with predisposition to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other degenerative diseases.


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Aim and objective

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Classification of oil bean

2.2 Composition of seed

2.3 Fatty acid composition of African oil bean seed

2.4 Pharmacological uses

2.5 Anti nutrient in health

2.6 Oil bean and humans

2.6.1 Oil bean seed and animals

2.7 Oxidative stress

2.7.1 Malondialdehyde

2.8 Catalase

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and methods

3.1 Materials

3.2 Collection and identification of plant materials


3.4 Preparation of oil bean seed meal for animal feeding

3.4 .1 Oil bean seed meal inclusion diet preparations

3.4.2 Oil extraction

3.5 Formulation of oil bean seed meal diet

3.5.1 Oil bean seed based treatment diet (g/100g Diet)

3.5.2 Chemicals/Biochemicals

3.6 Phytochemical screening

3.6.1 Test for tannins

3.6.2 Test for alkaloids

3.6.3 Test for saponin

3.6.4 Test for flavonoids

3.6.5 Determination of phenols

3.7 Determination of fatty acid composition

3.7.1 Determination of anthocyanin

3.8 Collection of blood sample

3.9 Test for malonaldelyde

3.9.1 Catalase assay

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and discussion

4.1 Figure i fatty acid composition of extracted oil of  pentraclethra macrophylla

4.2 Figure ii malondialdehyde concentration of test and control animal

4.3 Figure iii catalase concentration of test and control animals

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion

5.1 Recommendations





1.0.         INTRODUCTION

Ugba also called ukpaka is a popular food delicacy in Nigeria especially among Igbo ethnic group. It is rich in protein and is obtained by a solid state fermentation of the seed of African oil bean tree (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

The natural fermentation of the seed which at present is still done at the house-hold level, renders the production nutritious, palatable and non-toxic (Enujiugha, 2002).

Its production, like many African fermented foods depends, entirely on mixed fermentation by microorganism from diverse source.

Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth is a large woody plant abundant in the rain forest areas of west and central Africa. It’s 1937 (Ladipo, 1984); where it is found in the South Nigeria, (Mbajunwaet al.,1998).

―Ugba‖Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth belongs to the Family Leguminosae and sub-familyMicrosoideae (Keay, 1989 and NFTA, 1995).

Ugba seeds are irregular and oval; they are flat, black and hard pods. It is composed of oil, protein and small amounts of carbohydrate (Obeta, 1982).

1.1            AIM AND OBJECTIVES

(i)                To determine the concentration of Malondialdehyde (MDA, which indicates the peroxidation status) and

(ii)                The activity of Catalase (a marker of antioxidant status) in the serum of rats fed graded doses of African oil bean seed meal



The oil bean seeds are obtained from the African oil bean tree (Pentaclethra macrophylla Bentham) a large perennial leguminous plant that grows to a height of 25m. The leaves are small and reddish when Young and but gradually turn to dark green (Enujiugha and Agbade, 2005).

The trees are planted along the sides of roads as shade trees and around communities as cash crops. The fruit is black, hard and woody pod measuring about 35-36cm long and 5-10cm broad. When mature it splits open explosively to release about eight diameters and weighing about 15-20grams (Keay et al., 1964; Odunfan, 1986).

The compound leaves are usually about 20-45cm long and covered with rusty hairs giving a scurfy effect particularly along the upper surface but this eventually falls off. There are 10-12 pairs of stout pinnae, the middle pairs are 7-13cm long and also have rusty hairs along the central grove. There are usually 12 –15 pairs of opposite stalk less pinnules (leaflets) each 12 –15cm long and 5 –10mm broad,

with the middle pairs longest. Leaflets often have a rounded tip but are sometimes notched, the base is unequal.

Flowers are creamy yellow or pinkish-white and sweat smelling, flowering commences at variable periods within West Africa. The main flowering season is between March to April with smaller flushes in June and November. Fruits are available at most periods of the year because the large woody pods are persistent. The pods are 40-50cm long and 5-10 wide. Fruits splits open explosively with the valves curling up. This is the form in which they appear on most trees, usually pods contain between 6-10 flat glossy brown seeds and are up to 7cm long. This is the      edible   product   and   sources   of   the

Ville, 1959).

The fermented seed is called UGBA by the Igbo’s while the Efiks in the southern Nigeria call it UKANA. It is consumed by an

estimate of about 15 million people in the eastern part of Nigeria majority of who are Igbo’s (Odunfa85) and Oyeyola, 19


Kingdom:    Plantae

Order:                        Fabales

Family:       Fabaceae

Subfamily: Mimosoideae

Tribe:          Mimoseae

Genus:        Pentaclethra

Species       Pentaclethra macrophylla

2.2            COMPOSITION OF SEED:

The oilbean seeds contain 4-17% carbohydrate, 44-47% oil which has been found to be rich in oleic acid  (Nwokedi, 1975; Odoemelam, 2005) and linoleic acid  (Onwuliri et al., 2004). Onwuliri et al. (2004) also found out that the saturated  fatty acid, lignoceric acid, occurred in high amounts constituting about 10% of the total  fatty acid concentration. Some workers said that the oil content could be as low as 38%  (Kar and Okechukwu, 1978). They also reported that the oil contains about 75% saturated  fatty acids and 25% unsaturated  fatty acids. (Achinewhu,  1983) showed the  fatty acid content of the seeds. Both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are found in the seeds. For the saturated  fatty acids, lignoceric acid appears to be present in the largest amount constituting about 12% while palmitic acid is the least with 3.4%. Behemic acid is also present with 5.2%. The major

unsaturated  fatty acid in the seeds is linoleic acid constituting 42.8%. Oleic acid is

also present in appreciable amounts (29.0%). Linolenic and Gadoleic acids are

present in very small amounts (3.2 and 0.28%, respectively.






Yield of oil (%)


Saturated fatty acid

Palmitic acid






Unsaturated fatty acid









As percentage of total oil.  Achinewhu (1983)

presence  of  appreciable  amounts  of  behenic  and  lignoceric  acids  is  not

desirable for edible oils (Odufan, 1986).

However,  Odoemelam (2005) believes that the high degree of unsaturation makes

it suitable for cooking purposes and for use as a drying oil for cosmetics, paints

and varnishes.

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