Effective communication as a strategy for enhancing organizational performance.
The word communication is derived from the Latin word communis meaning “Common” the communicator seeks to establish “commonness” with a receiver. Hence we define communication as the transmission of information and understanding through the use of common symbols, the common symbols may be verbal or non verbal. Gibson, Ivancevich, and Donnelly (2004).
According to Hoy and Miskel (2001): they see communication as simply the process of transmitting, information from one person to another.
Also, According to GRIFFIN (2003) communication is the sharing of message idea or attitudes that provide a degree of understanding between a sender and a receiver.
A more accurate definition of communication can be found by looking at its original meaning. The oxford English dictionary lists the Latin root of communicate as communicare, which means. To make common to many shares according to this definition, when people communicate they express their ideas to make common to many shares. According to this definition, when people communicate they express their ideas and feelings in a way that is understandable (Common) to each of them they share information with each other person has a direct effect on the other and on subsequent comments therefore communication is the process of people sharing thoughts ideas and feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways Hamilton and Parker (2004). Jones and George (2003) stated that communication is the sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding.
2.2 REVIEW LITERATURE IN LINE WITH RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS VARIABLES.
The section of the research work basically is meant to show more insight on the research hypothesis which guilds this study under this section, in this research work, the researcher stated three hypotheses therefore three topics will be discussed in the subsection of the research work.
- ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Communication has been characterized as the life “Life blood” of an organization and miscommunication has caused the equivalent of cardiovascular damage in more than one organization. Callaghan (2004).
Communication is the process by which people attempt to share meanings. Via the transmission of symbolic messages Stoner and Freeman (2002).
According to Bateman and SMELL (2002) They stated that, some managers believed they should choose only one channel to communicate a message because doing so is more efficient but multiple channels may be necessary for example with virtual terms, relying solely on e-mail is not enough. Managers should also employ audio meetings, video conferencing voice mail and face – to face communication. It is helpful for all team members to be available by phone during certain hours. You should hold regular face to face meetings and enforce attendance at scheduled virtually meetings. Regular updates status and two way exchanges are necessary via multiple channels.
Another key to communication effectiveness is that people know how to use various channels properly for example virtual terms should be trained on how to use software to enhance team performance. How to use (and not use) e-mail typography to communicate emotions and such norms as acknowledging receipt of messages and speed of response
Some managers over rely on certain “efficient” channels and neglect the most important and richest channel of all one on one conversation between supervisors and employee. Imagine the distribution of a printed publication often won’t believe what they read or understand it that is, if they read it at all. Before important communication. Put yourself in the shoes of the receiver and choose your approach accordingly for important communication the sooner and more often they can be discussed face to face one on one or in small groups the more effective they will be.
2.2.2 ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND COMMUNICATION.
Organization must operate in an environment the nature of any environment is such that whatever happens in the environment will have an effect on all operating units of the organization existing in it. For example, an organization may operate in an environment in which there is keen competition. The keen competition may bring failure or success of the organization.
An organization environment is composed of the institutions and forces that are in and outside the organizational and can affect the organizations performance. The environment typically includes suppliers. Employees, customers, competitors, union’s government regulatory agencies. And public pressure group. Ikharehon (2006).
According to Callaghan (2004) the structure of an organization refers not only to the physical environment in which the staff work but also to its social and psychological environment. By this is meant such factors as the respective positions and the authority and status of staff. It is the organization’s structure, which will influence the flow of information within it.
Internal communication appropriate organizational structure are those which recognizes that information flows are necessary for the smooth running of the enterprise further more the processes used for satisfying the informational needs of the organization must be appropriate External communication it is important that the organization is alert to the character and quality of the communication it has with outsiders. The organization must be able to respond appropriately to information it receives and so be aware that the information it gives out will affect the value of its reputation with the outside world. Therefore such information needs to be transmitted intelligently and in an appropriate format.
2.2.3 COMMUNICATION DIFFICULTIES AND VARIOUS MANAGEMENT CADRES
The following covers most of the elements in a faulty system of communication
- Lack of sound objectives words which are vogue imprecise omitting necessary information
- Faulty organization, such as lack of definition of responsibilities, too long chains of command and too wide spans of control
- Too Many assumptions made by a receiver who may be too quick in evaluating the meaning because of his inability to listen carefully.
- Use of technical Jargon, particularly in a new specialist fields, e.g. computers in addition the different educational and social background of recipients do not aid effective understanding.
- The atmosphere or environment may not be normal and innocent remarks may be given wrong interpretation Appleby (1994)
According to stoner and Freeman (2004) they stipulated that the following are the difficulties to effective communication.